Carbon dating definition


Volatiles, such as CO is the second most abundantly emitted volcanic gas next to steam.



There is also the problem of pressure systems carrying volcanic plumes several hundred kilometers to station locations.The "solid earth", a term popular amongst climatologists, is a deceptive misnomer as the aesthenosphere is a deeply convecting fluid upon which flexible sheets of crust (i.e. This deeply convecting fluid tears these delicate plates apart at rift zones and crushes them together like the bonnet of a wrecked car at convergence zones.Mountains rise out of fold belts resulting from the crumpling of plates, and where differences in plate buoyancy allow, one plate rides over another, forcing the other plate to follow the convection current into the aesthenosphere.Yet the USGS glibly claims that Gerlach's estimate includes both subaerial and submarine volcanoes in roughly equal amounts.

Given the more than 3 million volcanoes worldwide indicated by the work of Hillier & Watts (2007), one might be prone to wonder about the statistical significance of Gerlach's seven subaerial volcanoes and three hydrothermal vent sites.

For example, the observatory in New Zealand, located somewhere along the 41 parallel, is within 250 km of Tanaki and the entire North Island active volcanic province.