Dating in the 18th century


Rome was sacked first by the Gauls (, and fires and earthquakes ravaged individual buildings or whole areas fairly often over the millennia.But, of all these scourges, it was the stripping of the structures of antiquity for building materials, especially from the 9th century through the 16th, that destroyed more of Classical Rome than any other force.From the foot of the Capitoline Hill, the Corso runs to the Piazza del Popolo and through a gate in the city wall, the Porta del Popolo, there to resume its ancient name.The Corso begins spectacularly with the Vittoriano (1911), the monument to Victor Emmanuel II, first king of united Italy, constructed in Brescian marble to coincide with the 50th anniversary of unification.Although Rome grew beyond the Servian defenses, no new wall was constructed until the emperor Aurelian began building in brick-faced concrete in 270 .Approximately 12.5 miles (20 km) long and girdling about 4 square miles (10 square km), the Aurelian Wall is still largely intact.Mussolini, meanwhile, created a cult of personality that challenged that of the pope himself, and his Fascist Party tried to re-create the glories of Rome’s imperial past through a massive public works program.



It was built into ramparts that dated at least from the early Roman Republic.Physically mutilated, economically paralyzed, politically senile, and militarily impotent by the late Middle Ages, Rome nevertheless remained a world power—as an idea.The force of Rome the lawgiver, teacher, and builder continued to radiate throughout Europe.Rome was built on a defensible hill that dominated the last downstream, high-banked river crossing where traverse of the Tiber was facilitated by a midstream island.