Dating steuben glass

The metal itself is obtained through electrolysis of its halide salts.Currently, most neodymium is extracted from bastnäsite, (Ce, La, Nd, Pr)CO99.99%).Lindsay Chemical Division was the first to commercialize large-scale ion-exchange purification of neodymium.Starting in the 1950s, high purity (above 99%) neodymium was primarily obtained through an ion exchange process from monazite, a mineral rich in rare-earth elements.Metallic neodymium has a bright, silvery metallic luster, but as one of the more reactive lanthanide rare-earth metals, it quickly oxidizes in ordinary air.

Neodymium compounds were first commercially used as glass dyes in 1927, and they remain a popular additive in glasses.The color of neodymium compounds—due to the Nd ion—is often a reddish-purple but it changes with the type of lighting, due to the interaction of the sharp light absorption bands of neodymium with ambient light enriched with the sharp visible emission bands of mercury, trivalent europium or terbium.Some neodymium-doped glasses are also used in lasers that emit infrared with wavelengths between 10 nanometers.The evolving technology, and improved purity of commercially available neodymium oxide, was reflected in the appearance of neodymium glass that resides in collections today.

Early neodymium glasses made in the 1930s have a more reddish or orange tinge than modern versions which are more cleanly purple, due to the difficulties in removing the last traces of praseodymium in the era when manufacturing relied upon fractional crystallization technology.

This laser usually emits infrared at a wavelength of about 1064 nanometers.

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